Infectious diseases


Rubella is a highly contagious viral disease causing slight fever, mild rash, and swollen glands. Contracting rubella in early pregnancy can result in birth defects and fetal death. Rubella vaccine is recommended to prevent the spread of the disease, especially in women of childbearing age. Symptoms of rubella include rash, fever, joint aches, and runny nose, but as many as half of all cases occur without a rash. There is no specific treatment for rubella, but immunity after contracting the disease is usually permanent. The MMR vaccine, which includes rubella, is given to children and those without laboratory evidence of immunity. Preventing the spread of rubella is crucial to control congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which can cause deafness, blindness, heart defects, and mental retardation in infants.


Pinworms are small, thin, white roundworms called Enterobius vermicularis that can live in the colon and rectum of humans. Pinworm infection is the most common worm infection, affecting people of all ages and socioeconomic levels. The infection is spread through the transfer of infective pinworm eggs from the anus to someone’s mouth. Symptoms include itching around the anus and difficulty sleeping.